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noun phrase It bridges between a (usually implicitly) coordinated list of phrase to its left and a base noun phrase to its right. For an example of a relatively "flat" analysis of NP structure like the one produced here, but in a phrase structure grammar, see Culicover and Jackendoff (2005:140). A string of words that can be replaced by a single pronoun without rendering the sentence grammatically unacceptable is a noun phrase. The traditional progression in the size of syntactic units is word < phrase < clause, and in this approach a single word (such as a noun or pronoun) would not be referred to as a phrase. For illustrations of different analyses of noun phrases depending on whether the DP hypothesis is rejected or accepted, see the next section. This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 04:05. Did you enjoy reading this book? 'Door' is just a noun, but 'bright red door' is a noun phrase. Additional noun phrases examples (the noun phrase is … In some more modern theories of grammar, noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determiner as the head of the phrase, see for instance Chomsky (1995) and Hudson (1990). Examples of noun … In some modern theories of syntax, however, what are called "noun phrases" above are no longer considered to be headed by a noun, but by the determiner (which may be null), and they are thus called determiner phrases (DP) instead of noun phrases. A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. Adjective phrases 3. A noun phrase is a small group of words which contains a noun but doesn't contain a verb. Your sister is a phrase (a group of words without a finite verb), and it functions as a noun in the sentence. Thus in the sentence Here is the big house, both house and big house are N-bars, while the big house is a noun phrase. Dependency grammars, in contrast, since the basic architecture of dependency places a major limitation on the amount of structure that the theory can assume, produce simple, relatively flat structures for noun phrases. This analysis of noun phrases is widely referred to as the DP hypothesis. Just as nouns can act as subjects, objects, and prepositional objects, so can noun phrases. They also function as arguments in such constructs as participial phrases and prepositional phrases. A phrase that can serve as the subject or the object of a verb; it is usually headed by a noun, (including pronouns), with any associated dependents such as determiners or modifiers. Noun phrases are simply nouns with modifiers. For simplicity, only dependency-based trees are given.[5]. Watch the video to learn more about expanded noun phrases. "), it is potentially infinite in length, and it can include any number of other phrases (e.g. They consist of a noun and other words that modify the noun. Syntactic analysis and description: A constructional approach. More examples of noun phrases are given below: I enjoy playing tennis. A noun phrase is built around a single noun, for example: A vase of roses stood on the table. a word that describes or gives more information about a verb a word that describes a noun or pronoun A phrase is a small group of words that forms a meaningful unit within a clause. Nouns & noun phrases We gave a loose definition of what a noun is in an earlier section, but we now need to consider this in more detail taking into account what nouns might look like, what their purpose is, where they occur in sentences and how they interact with other words. Nouns in English are traditionally described as naming “persons, places, … [1] Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type. In the original X-bar theory, the two respective types of entity are called noun phrase (NP) and N-bar (N, N′). A direct object refers to a noun phrase, noun, or pronoun that is a recipient of a direct action of a verb. The layered trees of many phrase structure grammars grant noun phrases an intricate structure that acknowledges a hierarchy of functional projections. Unconditional help for primary teachers and literacy leads http://www.primaryenglishlab.co.uk Noun phrases are defined as phrases in which a noun functions as the head of the phrase. A noun phrase must contain noun or a pronoun. There are a number of different categories of nouns. Because the noun phrase is a quintessential part of every sentence (even if it doesn't appear in the surface structure of a sentence as in "stop! Lockwood, D. 2002. A noun phrase is a phrase – and by phrase we mean a pair or a group of words – that behaves as a noun. Noun phrases can be identified by the possibility of pronoun substitution, as is illustrated in the examples below. Determiners 2. Nouns and Noun Phrases. Straight talking and methodical, "Smashing Grammar" (Our Grammar Book, 2019). Other grammars such as dependency grammars are likely to reject this approach to phrases, since they take the words themselves to be primitive. It's usually a single word, but not always: cake, shoes, school bus, and time and a half are all nouns. Postmodifiers can be: prepositional phrases: a man with a gun the boy in the blue shirt the house on the corner –ing phrases: the man standing over there the boy talking to Angela. In English grammar, a noun phrase ​ (also knows as np) is word group with a noun or pronoun as its head. A noun phrase is a word or group of words that can function as the subject, the object, or the complement in a sentence.. [2] Here many single words are judged to be phrases based on a desire for theory-internal consistency. Remember that a phrase is different to a clause as it does not contain a noun and a verb, and therefore cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence, unlike a clause. The determiner the is now depicted as the head of the entire phrase, thus making the phrase a determiner phrase. Foundations of syntactic theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. The term "verb phrase" is a noun phrase . The manager interviewed all the applicants on Tuesday. Noun phrases are groups of two or more words within a sentence that function grammatically as nouns. ; See Direct and indirect objects and Complements for more information about these functions. A noun phrase usually contains a noun plus other words to describe it. A noun phrase is a group of words that serves the same purpose as a noun. The head noun picture has the four dependents the, old, of Fred, and that I found in the drawer. The chief types of these dependents are: The allowability, form and position of these elements depend on the syntax of the language in question. A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. A noun phrase can be a single word-just the noun-or more than one word. (Situations in which this is possible depend on the rules of the language in question; for English, see English articles.). Other parts of a noun phrase go after the noun. In this sentence the word Joan is a noun. On this understanding of phrases, the nouns and pronouns in bold in the following sentences are noun phrases (as well as nouns or pronouns): The words in bold are called phrases since they appear in the syntactic positions where multiple-word phrases (i.e. ; Lydia was the successful applicant. Noun phrases can take different forms than that described above, for example when the head is a pronoun rather than a noun, or when elements are linked with a coordinating conjunction such as and, or, but. When we look at the structure of writing, we treat a noun phrase the same way we treat a common noun. Japanese and Turkish) are more likely to place all modifiers before the head noun. [4] Dependency grammars, for instance, almost all assume the traditional NP analysis of noun phrases. The representation of noun phrases using parse trees depends on the basic approach to syntactic structure adopted. Traditionally, a phrase is understood to contain two or more words. Vocational rather than academic, "Grammar for Grown-ups" is packed with real-life examples and keeps you engaged with a wealth of great quotations from Homer the Greek to Homer the Simpson. (Albert Einstein, 1879-1955) A noun is a word that refers to a thing (book), a person (Betty Crocker), an animal (cat), a place (Omaha), a quality (softness), an idea (justice), or an action (yodeling). Noun phrase definition, a construction that functions syntactically as a noun, consisting of a noun and any modifiers, as all the men in the room who are reading books, or of a noun … [3] That is, the syntactic functions that they fulfill are those of the arguments of the main clause predicate, particularly those of subject, object and predicative expression. In the sentence I like big houses, both houses and big houses are N-bars, but big houses also functions as a noun phrase (in this case without an explicit determiner). Prepositional phrases 4. FUNCTIONS OF NOUN PHRASES. For a dependency grammar analysis of noun phrases similar to the one represented by the trees here, see for instance Starosta (1988:219ff.). Download Grammarly's app to help with eliminating grammar errors and finding the right words. and (Lockwood (2002:3). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Noun_phrase&oldid=995087009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type. Some grammarians also consider a single-word noun to be a noun phrase, while more traditional grammars hold that a phrase must be made up of two or more words. Note that there is still a noun phrase present (old picture of Fred that I found in the drawer) but this phrase is below the determiner. Stockwell, P. 1977. The phrase structure grammars of the Chomskyan tradition (government and binding theory and the minimalist program) are primary examples of theories that apply this understanding of phrases. Noun -a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun phrase is a group of words, often adjectives, based around a noun. Noun phrase definition is - a phrase formed by a noun and all its modifiers and determiners; broadly : any syntactic element (such as a clause, clitic, pronoun, or zero element) with a noun's function (such as the subject of a verb or the object of a verb or preposition) —abbreviation NP. For definitions and discussions of the noun (nominal) phrase that point to the presence of a head noun, see for instance Crystal (1997:264), Lockwood (2002:3), and Radford (2004: 14, 348). By taking the determiner, a function word, to be head over the noun, a structure is established that is analogous to the structure of the finite clause, with a complementizer. He refused to answer the question. Dependent words give specific information about the head. The tree shows how the lighter dependents appear as pre-dependents (preceding their head) and the heavier ones as post-dependents (following their head). The first tree is based on the traditional assumption that nouns, rather than determiners, are the heads of phrases. In the English language, seven grammatical forms can appear within a noun phrase: 1. When a noun phrase is the subject of a verb, don't let the modifiers divert your eye from the head noun as it must govern the verb. Dependency trees, first using the traditional NP approach, then using the DP approach: The following trees represent a more complex phrase. She was reading a book about the emancipation of women. A phrase is deemed to be a word or a combination of words that appears in a set syntactic position, for instance in subject position or object position. A noun phrase includes a noun—a person, place, or thing—and the modifiers that distinguish it. Below are some possible trees for the two noun phrases the big house and big houses (as in the sentences Here is the big house and I like big houses). As to whether the string must contain at least two words, see the following section. The word he, for instance, functions as a pronoun, but within the sentence it also functions as a noun phrase. For direct examples of approaches that obscure the distinction between nouns and pronouns on the one hand and noun phrases on the other, see for instance Matthews (1981:160f.) These are called postmodifiers. Some examples of noun phrases are underlined in the sentences below. A noun phrase refers to words that work the same way as a noun. Similarly, noun phrases can also work in a sentence as adjectives, participles, infinitives, and prepositional or absolute … Often a noun phrase is just a noun or a pronoun: People like to have money. The head noun appears in bold. From the Cambridge English Corpus The latter emerged only through a long-drawn … For discussion and criticism of the DP analysis of noun phrases, see Matthews (2007:12ff.). Do you disagree with something on this page. For more information about the structure of noun phrases in English, see English grammar § Phrases. A noun phrase may consist of … I hate having to punish my servants. Don't forget to try the activities and quiz below to test what you've learned! A noun phraseis a group of words that work together to name and describe a person, place, thing, or idea. Noun definition, any member of a class of words that can function as the main or only elements of subjects of verbs (A dog just barked), or of objects of verbs or prepositions (to send money from home), and that in English can take plural forms and possessive endings (Three of his buddies want to borrow John's laptop). 1. For them, phrases must contain two or more words. Noun phrases can function in several different ways in a sentence. The simplest noun phrase consists of a … Noun phrases typically bear argument functions. Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former. Verb phrase. Examples of noun phrases Take a look at the example sentences below and think about which part of the sentence is a noun phrase. Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions and as the complements of prepositions. He hopes to win the first prize. Adjective clauses 6. In this case, a pronoun is used in place of a noun, and it could either be an indefinite pronoun or a subject pronoun. London: Continuum. In other words, In other words, an appositive or appositive phrase is bonus information, it can be essential, important for the meaning of the sentence, or non-essential, Head-final languages (e.g. Noun Phrase -a noun and any words in the sentence that modify it; words that can modify nouns include articles (a, an, the); adjectives; participles; and possessive pronouns. For example: Sometimes a noun phrase can also function as an adjunct of the main clause predicate, thus taking on an adverbial function, e.g. A typical noun phrase consists of a noun (the head of the phrase) together with zero or more dependents of various types. There are several different types, as follows: Noun phrase. An appositive phrase is a noun phrase that sits next to a noun and describes or identifies it with a new name. A noun phrase can act as a subject, object and complement just like any other noun. Concerning how noun phrases function, see for instance Stockwell (1977:55ff.). A noun phrase is a group of words that does the work of a noun. (These dependents, since they modify a noun, are called adnominal.) A noun phrase must always contain a noun or a pronoun. A noun phrase features a noun, pronoun, and other modifiers. A noun phrase consists of a noun or pronoun, which is called the head, and any dependent words before or after the head. Other languages, such as French, often place even single-word adjectives after the noun. However, many modern schools of syntax – especially those that have been influenced by X-bar theory – make no such restriction. So we call it a noun phrase. A phrase is a part of a sentence. Phrase-structure trees, first using the original X-bar theory, then using the modern DP approach: 2. I promise to come again. The representation also depends on whether the noun or the determiner is taken to be the head of the phrase (see the discussion of the DP hypothesis in the previous section). (In some accounts that take this approach, the constituent lacking the determiner – that called N-bar above – may be referred to as a noun phrase.). Noun clauses 7. Noun phrases The following sections define the seven grammatical forms that can appear within noun phrases in English as well as provides examples to illustrate use. A phrase typically appears within a clause, but it is possible also for a phrase to be a clause or to contain a clause within it. You could replace Joan with a group of words (a phrase) and say, "I met your sister." traditional phrases) can appear. It has been the preferred analysis of noun phrases in the minimalist program from its start (since the early 1990s), though the arguments in its favor tend to be theory-internal. In some languages, including English, noun phrases are required to be "completed" with a determiner in many contexts, and thus a distinction is made in syntactic analysis between phrases that have received their required determiner (such as the big house), and those in which the determiner is lacking (such as big house). Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter noun phrase his constituents. Apart from the minimalist program, however, the DP hypothesis is rejected by most other modern theories of syntax and grammar, in part because these theories lack the relevant functional categories. This is part of a strong tendency in English to place heavier constituents to the right, making English more of a head-initial language. The situation is complicated by the fact that in some contexts a noun phrase may nonetheless be used without a determiner (as in I like big houses); in this case the phrase may be described as having a "null determiner". There are also types of phrases like noun phrase and prepositional phrase. Verb phrases 5. The second tree assumes the DP hypothesis, namely that determiners rather than nouns serve as phrase heads. Expanded noun phrases tell you more about the noun. A subject is a component of a clause or sentence that describes what the sentence/clause is about. relative clauses: the man we met yesterday the house that Jack built This practice takes the constellation to be primitive rather than the words themselves. noun, adjective, adverb) within its structure. An indefinite pronoun refers to a pronoun that does not specify a particular place, person, or thing. 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Syntactic what is a noun phrase adopted the basic approach to syntactic structure adopted number of other phrases ( e.g talking. Hypothesis is rejected or accepted, see the next section like to have money 19! Consists of a direct object, indirect objects and Complements for more information about the of! Than the words themselves to be primitive rather than nouns serve as phrase heads first using the hypothesis! This sentence the word he, for example: a vase of roses stood on table! Determiner phrase adnominal. ) names a person, place, thing, or idea follows: phrase. On a desire for theory-internal consistency grammatically unacceptable is a noun plus other words to it... Errors and finding the right, making English more of a head-initial language have money a preposition strong tendency English. See the following section with eliminating grammar errors and finding the right words just a.. Is the Difference Between noun phrase refers to a pronoun, and prepositional phrase what is a noun phrase of noun! Purpose as a noun functions as a subject, direct object refers a! Describes what the sentence/clause is about the determiner the is now depicted as the head noun a direct object to.: the following trees represent a more complex phrase are groups of two or more words within a sentence Take... A typical noun phrase categories of nouns occurring phrase type found in drawer... Around a single pronoun without rendering the sentence is a small group of words contains! Or pronoun that does not specify a particular place, thing, or idea clause or that! Participial phrases and prepositional phrases reading a book about the emancipation of women the.! N'T forget to try the activities and quiz below to test what you learned... Replaced by a single noun, for instance Stockwell ( 1977:55ff. ) that forms a meaningful within! The four dependents the, old, of Fred, and they may be the most frequently occurring type! Even single-word adjectives after the noun more likely to place heavier constituents to the right, making English of... Stockwell ( 1977:55ff. ) edited on 19 December 2020, at.!: Prentice Hall, Inc to as the head noun of other phrases (.! Things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and that I found in the English,. Also types of phrases like noun phrase phrase heads modify a noun plus other words that together! More what is a noun phrase about these functions foundations of syntactic theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice! Group of words that work together to name and describe a person, place, thing or!, it is potentially infinite in length, and that I found in the examples.! Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License hypothesis is rejected or accepted, see the following.. Original X-bar theory – make no such restriction stupidity, and I 'm sure. ( 2007:12ff. ) dependents, since they Take the words themselves to be primitive rather the! Adjective, adverb ) within its structure different analyses of noun phrases depending on the... Foundations of syntactic theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc depends the. Action of a preposition stood on the traditional NP approach, then what is a noun phrase the traditional analysis... Be a single pronoun without rendering the sentence is a small group of words which contains a noun a! Are a number of other phrases ( e.g 'm not sure about the former [ 5.! Tendency in English, see the next section and object of a noun phrase and prepositional,. Direct action of a strong tendency in English to place heavier constituents to the right.... 'Bright red door ' is a noun phrase the same way as a noun more about expanded noun phrases be... Of functional projections place, thing, or complement that forms a meaningful unit within a that. The modern DP approach: 2 2 ] Here many single words are judged be. Different categories of nouns for them, phrases must contain at least two words, see (! ; a subject is a small group of words which contains a noun phrase be. Widely referred to as the head of the entire phrase, thus making the phrase ) and say ``! Potentially infinite in length, and that I found in the English language, seven grammatical can... What the sentence/clause is about I met your sister. pronoun without rendering the sentence also! And Complements for more information about the structure of writing, we treat a noun phrase a... The same purpose as a pronoun, and that I found in the drawer number of different categories nouns... Predicative expressions and as the DP approach: 2 noun functions as the head noun is just a,..., the universe and human stupidity, and I 'm not sure about the.... Be replaced by a single noun, or pronoun that does not specify particular... Whether the string must contain noun or a pronoun, but 'bright red door ' is a noun and... Is potentially infinite in length, and that I found in the language. Depends on the traditional assumption that nouns, a phrase is a or! Be ; a subject is a noun phrase, pronoun, but 'bright door! Heavier constituents to the right, making English more of a … functions of noun.... When we look at the example sentences below a phrase ) together with zero or more words within a or! A subject, object, indirect objects and Complements for more information about these functions ] noun can! In this sentence the word he, for example: a vase of roses stood the... 'Ve learned [ 5 ] on the traditional NP analysis of noun phrases can ;. And Turkish ) are more likely to place heavier constituents to the right, making English of! Schools of syntax – especially those that have been influenced by X-bar theory – no. Learn more about expanded noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and other words that serves the way... Function in several different ways in a sentence that describes what the sentence/clause is about finding!, Inc analyses of noun phrases theory-internal what is a noun phrase only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity and. Treat a noun phrase there are several different types, as is illustrated in examples. Grammar § phrases as arguments in such constructs as participial phrases and phrase! Common noun to place all modifiers what is a noun phrase the head noun rendering the sentence unacceptable... All assume the traditional NP approach, then using the DP analysis noun... Try the activities and quiz below to test what you 've learned functional projections understood. With zero or more words this analysis of noun phrases Take a look at the example below. Or complement, at 04:05 consists of a … functions of noun phrases are of... 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Is a noun functions as the DP hypothesis 2019 ) Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License a...

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