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The Cognitive Flexibility Theory, introduced by Spiro, Feltovich, and Coulson in 1988, is about how learning takes place in “complex” and “ill-structured domains”. (Sprio, Feltovich, Jacobson & Coulson, 1991). defined as the ability to switch one’s thinking (cognition) (or train of thought) as an adaptation to the demands of stimuli Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [.... ] Cognitive flexibility … Boger-Mehall, Stephanie R. Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Implications for Teaching and Teacher Education. According to Godshalk et al (2004: 510), Cognitive Flexibility Theory “maintains that instruction in complex, ill-structured domains must allow the learner to "crisscross" the domain knowledge by comparing and contrasting information gained from different perspectives and themes pertinent to the domain. Central to its argument is the claim that most of the variance on theory-of-mind tasks can be attributed to the development of flexible perspective taking. Cognitive flexibility is strengthened when your brain has more neural pathways and connections. 57-76). “Cognitive Flexibility Theory” in Discourses on Learning in Education. Cognitive flexibility can be seen from a variety of viewpoints. 163-205). Cognitive flexibility is an important skill for children to learn because it is naturally built into their school day. Cognitive flexibility also involves the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge in a new way. Example: Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.”, “In summary: Ill-structured aspects of knowledge pose problems for advanced knowledge acquisition that are remedied by the principles of Cognitive Flexibility Theory. CF is sometimes referred to as task switching, but don’t get this confused with multitasking (which, as it’s branded, doesn’t actually exist). Its primary applications have been literary comprehension, history, biology and medicine. Cognitive Flexibility Theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill structure domain. The construing–constructing distinction is critical, and it became an issue because the French verb construire can be translated as either “to construe” (i.e., to integrate elements to make sense of) or “to construct” (i.e., to build something). It emphasizes the advanced knowledge acquisition, which allows "flexible reassembly of preexisting knowledge to adaptively fit the needs of a new situation." Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. Moreover, it refers to simultaneously considering multiple aspects of thought at once, whether they be two aspects of a specific object, or many aspects of a complex situation. Davis, B., & Francis, K. (2020). Cognitive Flexibility Theory (CFT) suggests that deep learning requires learners to engage with new content from multiple perspectives and in flexible ways of thinking. Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1991). Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Themes of Advanced Knowledge Acquisition Where has our research on the problems of advanced knowledge acquisition led us? & Jehng, J. C. (1990). Cognitive Flexibility Theory (R. Spiro, P. Feltovitch & R. Coulson) TUPAZ CRIZEL MAE S. BSED1 Cognitive Flexibility Theory OVERVIEW Cognitive flexibility theory focuses on the nature of learning in complex and ill-structured domains. If you’re unfamiliar with Cognitive Flexibility (CF), it is essentially the brain’s ability and ease to switch one’s thinking (or train of thought) from one task to another in order to respond or adapt to new stimuli. Essentially, it is your ability to adapt when a situation changes. the constructive nature of understanding; the complex and ill-structured features of many, if not most, knowledge domains; a theory of learning that addresses known patterns of learning failure. Cognitive Flexibility Theory is asserted to be among Non-Trivial Constructivisms, concerned with learning in complex domains in which ill-structured situations are common, such as history, biology, law, and medicine. Extensive research has been done on this theory, particularly in regards to children and the way they adapt in classroom settings. Learning is seen in terms of integration of new information into existing structures through processes of internal codification. The cognitive flexibility theory was created by Rand J. Spiro, Richard L. Feltovitch and Paul J. Coulson. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. The program provides a number of different clinical cases which students must diagnose and treat using various sources of information available (including advice from experts). Gratitude enhances cognitive flexibility through the following mechanisms; The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Gratitude as a positive emotion can broaden the scopes of attention and cognition; by expanding an individual’s focus to process a wide range of information. What this and other studies do is clue us in to some key ideas for how to improve cognitive flexibility, ultimately making us more resilient, creative, and confident. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to revise your plans in the face of obstacles, setbacks, new information, or mistakes. Let's identify the key elements of cognitive flexibility theory. Despite some disagreement in the literature about how to operationally define the term, one commonality is that cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning. 1. When students are working through problem-solving activities they might have to apply multiple concepts or ways of thinking to find a solution. This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. This chapter examines the labeling function of language, in this case as an aid to cognitive flexibility. What does Cognitive flexibility mean? Some information may be missing or may be wrong, spelling and grammar may have to be improved, use your judgment! In other words, learners must be flexible in their understanding of a topic to apply important concepts.”. Graddy, Duane B. Cognitive Flexibility Theory as a Pedagogy for Web-Based Course Design. A synthesized research definition of cognitive flexibility is a switch in thinking, whether that is specifically based on a switch in rules or broadly based on a need to switch one’s previous beliefs or thoughts to new situations. Knowledge representation, content specification, and the development of skill in situation-specific knowledge assembly: Some constructvist issues as they relate to cognitive flexibility theory and hypertext. The cognitive flexibility theory (Spiro et al., 2003) suggests that peoples' fundamental beliefs and knowledge play an important role in shaping their behavior and determining the cognitive resources they access to solve problems. The Role of Learning Tasks on Attitude Change Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertext Systems, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 (4) 507-526. The aspect of Cognitive Flexibility Theory that … In particular, multidimensional and nonlinear hypertext systems, if appropriately designed to take into account all of the considerations discussed above, have the power to convey ill-structured aspects of knowledge domains and to promote features of cognitive flexibility in ways that traditional learning environments (textbooks, lectures, computer-based drill) could not (although such traditional media can be very successful in other contexts or for other purposes). In short, cognitive flexibility skills allow … Often times, these beliefs and knowledge also restrict the recognition of new information (Spiro, 1988). A vital demand made by the Cognitive Flexibility Theory is to reuse educational material at different times. 2003). Further down Spiro (1992) argue that "The computer is ideally suited, by virtue of the flexibility it can provide, for fostering cognitive flexibility. Students are constantly switching gears, moving from science to English, to recess, and so on throughout the day. Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. (1987, 1988), Spiro and Jehng (1990) and Feltovich et al. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates. (in press). Cognitive Flexibility Theory is a prescriptive instructional design theory which suggests that non-linear learning environments such as hypertext or hypermedia support complex learning and avoidance of oversimplification in learning. Definition of Cognitive flexibility in the Definitions.net dictionary. According to Spiro (1992): Any effective approach to instruction must simultaneously consider several highly intertwined topics, such as: Therefore: see Cognitive flexibility hypertexts but also case-based learning. It reinterprets the relation between language and theory of mind in terms of language-related effects on cognitive flexibility. Godshalk, Veronica M., Douglas M. Harvey, Leslie Moller (2004). The cognitive flexibility theory intends to foster the learners' ability to spontaneously reconstruct their … Learn more in: Examining the Effectiveness of … Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. Jonassen, Ambruso & Olesen (1992) describe an application of cognitive flexibility theory to the design of a hypertext program on transfusion medicine. Moreover, it refers to simultaneously considering multiple aspects of thought at once, whether they be two aspects of a … Attempts at validation lead majority members to discover new dimensions of the-S (),, AND. This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. Cognitive flexibility theory is especially formulated to support the use of interactive technology (e.g., videodisc, hypertext). Cognitivism is explicitly developed around the metaphor “brain as computer.” It thus focuses on how information is acquired, processed, and organized. They stated that cognitive flexibility is the ability to restructure knowledge in order to adapt and make use of … Research on the Cognitive Flexibility Theory … © 2021 Copyright Discourses on Learning in Education. Cognitive flexibility refers to the ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts or to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. In D. Nix & R. Spiro (Eds. Research on CFT-informed learning environments suggests that flexible thinking during learning activities supports the development of higher order thinking skills (e.g. By seeing multiple representations of the same phenomenon learners develop the mental scaffolding necessary for considering novel applications within the knowledge domain. https://learningdiscourses.com. In T. M. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen (Eds. The learning environment presents multiple perspectives on the content, is complex and ill-defined, and emphasizes the construction of knowledge by the learner. LEA restricted access, The educational technology and digital learning wiki. In essence, it’s a theory that strives to determine how the human mind can obtain and manage knowledge and how it restructures our existing knowledge base, based on the new information received. What is … Its primary applications have been literary comprehension, history, biology and medicine. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. “Cognitive flexibility theory suggests that learners grasp the nature of complexity more readily by being presented with multiple representations of the same information in different contexts. According to ‘‘conversion theory’’ (Moscovici, 1980), majority members resolve this tension by trying to ‘‘validate’’ the minority position, which involves considering its relation to the issue itself. Information and translations of Cognitive flexibility in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. ), Cognition, education, and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp. Educational Technology,31 (9), 22-25. And in restructured contexts, for various purposes, and from different conceptual perspectives. Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1992). Developed in late 80's by Dr. Rand Spiro (educational psychologist @ Michigan State University) What is it? ), Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation (pp. Non-Trivial Constructivisms encompass a range of learning theories that invoke a “learning as construing” – vs. a “learning as constructing” – metaphor. In animal models, cognitive flexibility generally refers to the ability to switch a behavioral response according to the context of a situation (Scott, 1962 ). Cognitive flexibility theory, which was introduced in 1988, examines how learners adapt to changing situations. Knowledge is … repertoire of established facts, Knowing is … flexible application of understandings, Learner is … a meaning-maker (individual). A synthesized research definition of cognitive flexibility is a switch in thinking, whether that is specifically based on a switch in rules or broadly based on a need to switch one's previous beliefs or thoughts to new situations. It is the mind’s ability to process new or changing information and the flexibility to change thinking or action to accommodate updated information(Bilgin, 2009, Bock, 2009). Various thematic elements can criss-cross numerous cases that seem quite dissimilar in an overt context but add to the learner\u2019s cognitive development.”, “maintains that instruction in complex, ill-structured domains must allow the learner to "crisscross" the domain knowledge by comparing and contrasting information gained from different perspectives and themes pertinent to the domain. How to Improve Cognitive Flexibility Skills Meaning of Cognitive flexibility. Cognitive Flexibility theory and education, Cognitive Flexibility Theory and Educational Technology, “Cognitive flexibility theory suggests that learners grasp the nature of complexity more readily by being presented with multiple representations of the same information in different contexts. Spiro and Jehng explained that cognitive flexibility means that students have the ability to restructure their knowledge as a response to the cognitive demands of various learning situations. The goal is for the learner to understand the interconnection of domain concepts and to avoid "oversimplification" and "rigid" thinking regarding the content area. Example. Cognitive flexibility resides at the intersection of awareness, adaptability and confidence. Cognitive flexibility is the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to face new and unex-pected conditions in the environment (Cañas et al. This cognitive theory of learning is systematically applied to an instructional theory, Random Access Instruction, which in turn guides the design of nonlinear computer learning environments we refer to as, http://www.ipfw.edu/as/tohe/2001/Papers/graddy/graddy.htm, http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/mediawiki/index.php?title=Cognitive_flexibility_theory&oldid=21967. Please cite this article as: Spiro, R. J. This article is filled with a lot of background information to help you to build a strong foundation. The Cognitive Flexibility Theory was introduced by Spiro and Jehng in 1990. of Cognitive Flexibility Theory, see Spiro et al. The Cognitive Flexibility Theory, introduced by Spiro, Feltovich, and Coulson in 1988, is about how learning takes place in “complex” and “ill-structured domains”. Different interactive exercises help us improve our cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility can be seen from a variety of viewpoints. [.... ] Cognitive flexibility hypertext fosters the development of knowledge-transfer skills by confronting the learner with multiple representations of case-events. We refer to the principled use of flexible features inherent in computers to produce nonlinear learning environments as Random Access Instruction (Spiro & Jehng, 1990).". Cognitive flexibility is a component of executive functioning, and is the ability to switch between two different concepts and think about multiple things simultaneously in a way that is organized and functional. Why the risk of cognitive flexibility is lack of identity? By seeing multiple representations of the same phenomenon learners develop the mental scaffolding necessary for considering novel applications within the knowledge domain. Cognitive flexibility theory is especially formulated to support the use of interactive technology (e.g., videodisc, hypertext). In addition, research pertaining to adults and elders is becoming more and more popular of an interest for study on this theory. Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains learner with multiple representations of the same phenomenon learners develop mental... ( 1991 ) wrong, spelling and grammar may have to apply multiple concepts or ways of thinking to a. 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